Saturday, November 25, 2023

Vocal recitals, from alto to bass

The arias in vocal recitals of baroque music are mostly taken from operas. That is also the case with three of the discs to be reviewed here. However, the first includes arias from oratorios, and the last a mixture of oratorio and opera. The oratorio was one of the main genres of vocal music during the baroque period. In the mid-17th century it developed in Rome, and came in two forms: either written for ecclesiastical use, on a text in Latin, or a so-called oratorio volgare, a piece in Italian, which was performed outside a liturgical context. This way the message of the church - and especially that of the Counter Reformation - could be disseminated among the people who did not understand Latin. In the course of time the latter form became dominant: from the late 17th century onwards Italian composers wrote their oratorios on librettos in Italian and stylistically they became closer to opera. Most oratorios of the 18th century are basically operas on a sacred subject. That could be either the life of a saint (or episodes from it) or a story from the Bible. Philippe Jaroussky [1] has recorded a selection of arias from Italian oratorios from the late 17th to the mid-18th century. Most of them are appearing on disc for the first time, and that is telling: there seems to be more interest in operas of the late baroque period than in oratorios. That is very regrettable, as this disc shows. Jaroussky has undoubtedly selected the best arias, but one may assume that their quality says a lot about the level of the oratorios from which they are taken. It is impossible to choose highlights, but one of them is definitely the aria 'Il rimorso opprime il seno' and the preceding accompanied recitative from La conversione di Sant'Agostino by Johann Adolf Hasse, which is a perfect example of a 'sacred opera'. One easily recognizes here the operatic skills of Hasse who was the most celebrated opera composer of his time for a reason. Very moving is the last aria, 'È morto il mio Gesù', from the oratorio Morte e sepoltura di Christo by Antonio Caldara. Most composers included here have written several oratorios, and one can only wish that this part of their oeuvre is going to be explored more extensively than has been the case to date. The performances are excellent: Jaroussky's relatively light and agile voice is perfectly suited to this repertoire, and this recording is close to his heart, as he explains in his notes in the booklet. That shows: he sings with great conviction and engagement, and he is excellent form. Apart from some exaggerated cadenzas he avoids all eccentricities, and often he sings with great subtlety. The ensemble is his best possible partner, and delivers outstanding accounts of the orchestral scores. This disc makes one longing for more.

One of the most influential poems of the Renaissance was Ludovico Ariosti's Orlando furioso, which inspired authors of opera librettos and their composers, and whose various characters became the subjects of cantatas. The Italian alto Filippo Minecccia [2] recorded a programme of arias from various operas, in which some of them figure. Orlando is the title character of operas by Handel and Vivaldi and he also appears in Porpora's L'Angelica. Ruggiero is one of the characters in Orlando generoso by Agostino Steffani, Polinesso in Handel's Ariodante. Among the lesser-known characters are Lurciano (Wagenseil, Ariodante) and Ergasto (Mele, Angelica e Medoro). Medoro is one of the title characters of Angelica e Medoro, which is attributed to Giuseppe Millico. The latter work dates from 1783 and closes the programme, which opens with Steffani's Orlando generoso of 1691. This indicates the wide chronological scope of the programme, which explains the stylistic differences. The problem with aria recitals is the lack of dramatic context. In this case that may be less of a problem as the stories about the different characters are rather well-known, at least among opera lovers. It is nice that in some cases the aria is preceded by a recitative, which offers at least some of the context. It also gives the interpreter the opportunity to show his or her skills in the interpretation of recitatives, which is harder than one may think. Mineccia does well in them, and he certainly does not lack in dramatic craft. That said, I am not entirely satisfied by this recital. Over the years I have heard a number of recordings by him and I mostly enjoyed them. Here I find his voice sometimes a bit harsh, lacking in warmth and suppleness. There is also too much vibrato, which is stylistically debatable and not nice to hear. In the aria from Porpora's L'Angelica he adds a cadenza which crosses the compass of the role, which is undesirable, and he sings it at full power. That is a bad habit of many opera singers these days. Unfortunately the orchestra also does not always produce a pleasant sound. With eight violins and two violas it is larger than the orchestras in some aria recordings, but in this repertoire I could imagine an even larger ensemble. What speaks in favour of this disc is that it has a clear subject which has been worked out well, and includes extracts from operas that are not that well-known. Mele and Millico are virtually unknown qualities, and Wagenseil is also not known for his operas. From the angle of subject and repertoire this is definitely a very interesting disc.

The Italian tenor Marco Angioloni [3] put himself into the shoes of Annabale Pio Fabbri, a singer and composer from Bologna, who appeared in operas by various composers, among them Vivaldi and Handel. Tenors usually did not take the main roles in operas in the 18th century. That was different in the 17th century, when they often played a key role in the comical part of operas, and also in the 19th century, when they often sang the title role. However, in the 18th century some composers scored major roles for a tenor. One could see it as a time in which they gradually gained in status. Some of the arias by Handel may attest to that. Four arias are first recordings, among them two from Rinaldo, which may surprise, as this is one of Handel's most frequently-recorded operas. However, the two arias are from the revival of 1731; in that performance the role of Goffredo, which was scored for an alto in the first performances of 1711, was rescored for tenor, and sung by Fabbri. The revival of Publio Cornelio Scipione in 1730 was even more drastic in that the title role, which in the first performances of 1726 was scored for alto, was rewritten for Fabbri. He was considered one of the greatest singers of his time, and according to Angioloni, in his liner-notes, he had a 'pure lyric tenor' voice, and "without a doubt (...) is one of the tenors who contributed to the development of this tessitura at the beginning of the 18th century". The programme offers arias from operas, in which he participated. Apart from Handel and Vivaldi, the programme includes arias by Alessandro Scarlatti, Domenico Sarro and Antonio Caldara. All of them are first recordings, which bears witness to the lack of recordings of the operas by these composers. Angioloni thinks that Fabbri had the same kind of voice as he has, and he may well be right. His voice is indeed lyrical, and suits the selected arias perfectly. I like his singing, and I hope to hear more from him. His interpretations are stylish, and he never goes over the top in ornamentation and cadenzas. The way he treats the recitatives betrays his Italian roots: they sound completely natural, both in his pronunciation and in his rhythmic liberties. The orchestra is a bit on the small side; I would prefer a slightly larger orchestra, especially in Handel. Because of the many first recordings and the performances this is a disc every opera lover may want to add to his collection.

Antonio Caldara is one of those composers of the baroque era who were celebrities in their own time, but play a marginal role in modern music life. Some of his works are rather well-known, such as his oratorio Maddalena ai piedi di Cristo , but the largest part of his sizeable oeuvre waits to be rediscovered. He worked in Venice, Rome and Barcelona, before moving to Vienna, where he for many years was the favourite composer of emperor Charles VI. There he wrote liturgical music, cantatas, serenatas, oratorios and operas. The bass Alexandre Baldo [4] recorded a number of arias from operas and oratorios which Caldara composed for the court in Vienna. He is accompanied by a small instrumental ensemble, in which he used to play the viola, before turning to a career as a singer. The ensemble plays with one instrument per part, and in some pieces that may be appropriate. That goes for Scipione africano il maggiore, which is called a festa di camera per musica, and the oratorio Il Batista, which was performed in the emperor's private chapel. In other cases a larger orchestra would have been more in line with the performance practice at the court and have done more justice to the dramatic nature of an aria. It took me a while before I started to appreciate Alexandre Baldo's singing. I liked his voice, but found his performances a little stiff and flat. This may also be due to the arias themselves, which are probably not always top-class. It is in the arie di bravura that I liked his singing best, and the arias from the two oratorios also come off well. Even so, the cadenzas are not very imaginative, and I would have liked stronger differences between good and bad notes, especially in coloratura. However, a disc with arias from Caldara's oeuvre is welcome anyway, as he deserves much more interest and he should be better represented on disc. Baldo has himself dug up these arias and found out who sang them in Caldara's time. He also wrote the informative liner-notes. It is a bit odd, though, that none of the people participating in this production, seems to know that the title character of Il Batista - mentioned 'Sto Giovanni Battista' in the score - is generally known as (St) John the Baptist, not as 'the prophet Baptist'.

[1] "La vanità del mondo"
Philippe Jaroussky, alto; Artaserse
Erato 0190295179298 (© 2020) details

[2] "Orlando - amore, gelosia, follia"
Filippo Mineccia, alto; The New Baroque Times/Pablo García
Glossa GCD 923523 (© 2020) details

[3] "A Baroque Tenor - Arias for Annibale Fabbri"
Marco Angioloni, tenor; Il Groviglio/Stéphane Fuget
Pan Classics PC 10437 (© 2022) details

[4] Antonio Caldara: "Arias for Bass"
Alexandre Baldo, bass-baritone; Ensemble Mozaïque
Pan Classics PC 10 447 (© 2023) details

Saturday, November 11, 2023

The 2nd International Chopin Competition on Period Instruments - Observations and considerations

Recently I have been following parts of the International Chopin Competition on period instruments, which took place in Warsaw and ended on 14 October. Chopin is not exactly a favourite composer of mine, and you will not find any review of performances of his music on my website. However, as I am interested in everything that goes on in the field of historical performance practice, I was curious to see and hear how the competition was going to proceed. I am not going to give any verdict on the performances of the individual contestants. I rather offer some observations and considerations with regard to the event.

The International Chopin Competition can look back on a long history: the first edition took place in 1927. Since 1955 the competition is held every five years. It has had prestigious winners who have made a great career. In 2018 the organization held a competition for performers on period instruments for the first time. As one may gather, this did not replace the usual competition: it took place halfway the edition of 2015 and 2021 (the latter was postponed for one year due to the COVID-19 pandemic). Apparently the first edition was a success, which explains why this year the second edition was held.

In the first round 35 contestants participated. A look at their biographies revealed that, apart from some very young players at the start of their career, there were several contestants who had already made quite a career on modern piano. That is not without risk: what does it say, if a respected pianist falls at the first hurdle? The fact that they took that risk may attest to the growing respectability and importance of historical performance practice in the world of the piano. There was a time that pianists of the 'traditional school' - the large majority of professional players - looked down at historical pianos and considered them primitive predecessors of the 'superior' modern concert grand. It seems that the younger generation is more open to the playing on period instruments and can value them for what they are. Often they say that these instruments learn them a lot about how the music of the 19th century has to be performed.

At the same time, the fact that the competition on period instruments has the form of a 'special edition' shows that playing on such instruments is a speciality, and still takes a marginal place in the piano world. That probably will not change very quickly, if only because many players want to cover a chronologically wide repertoire in their recitals. It is nearly impossible to play a recital with music written over a period of, say, 150 years on the appropriate instruments. In such cases the modern concert grand is the preferred instrument. This is only going to change if performers decide to put together their programmes in a different way.

Obviously the contestants had to play pieces by Chopin. However, in the first round they also needed to play pieces by some of his Polish contemporaries and pieces by Bach (from the Well-tempered Clavier) and Mozart. The latter is rather surprising. Bach's keyboard music is not intended for fortepiano; only late in his life he became acquainted with the pianos of Silbermann. And Mozart's keyboard instruments were very different from those which were at the disposal of the contestants, the oldest of which was the copy of a Graf of 1819. I understand that the reason was that Chopin held both in high esteem and played their music. That makes sense, but then the question is: how to play them? Like Chopin? I wonder whether we know how he played Bach and Mozart, and from which editions. For the sake of 'historical correctness' the contestants could have been asked to play Bach's preludes and fugues from the Well-tempered Clavier in the edition of Czerny. Whether there are any Mozart editions of Chopin's time, I don't know.

There is every reason to be happy with the developments in the field of performance practice of 19th-century music, as was demonstrated in this competition. At the same time, I suspect that many - probably most - pianists see the use of historical instruments as just one of the options. That is better than a complete neglect or even rejection. That said, we are still far away from what would be ideal: the awareness that period instruments are a sine qua non when one does want to do justice to the intentions of a composer.

Saturday, October 28, 2023

The harpsichord under Louis XV

We are used to see recordings of keyboard music by composers who are hardly known, mainly thanks to the releases of Brilliant Classics. The latter mostly include music by Italian composers. It seems that the map of the landscape of keyboard music in 18th-century France has hardly any white spots. That is a mistake, if we look at some of the releases reviewed here.

Christophe Moyreau and Charles Alexandre Jollage were contemporaries; the former is not mentioned in my edition of New Grove, the entry about the latter is confined to less than ten lines. It is interesting to listen to the oeuvre of these two in comparison: they may have been contemporaries but were stylistically different.

Christophe Moyreau [1] was born in Orléans where he worked all his life. He was educated as an organist, and acted in this capacity for most of his career. Although he seems not to have left any organ works, some of his harpsichord pieces that Fernando de Luca included in his recording, can be played on the organ, such as Les Cloches d'Orléans, which is included in his Op. 5 and closes the sixth disc. His keyboard works were published around 1753; the last disc of the set includes 'sinfonias' and 'concertos' which are dated 'c1760'.

The most common form of harpsichord works in France was the suite. In the 17th century composers left it to the performers to put together a suite according to their own preferences. In the 18th century composers published their pièces de clavecin as fixed suites. Another development was the introduction of character pieces. These became increasingly important and started to overshadow the traditional dances. Often suites also included pieces based on a basso ostinato, such as chaconne and passacaille. Moyreau's five books of harpsichord pieces are a little different. They include suites, but also pieces with the title of sonata, in four movements, following the Italian model: slow - fast - slow - fast. In addition there are some concertos and a few individual overtures. Some suites are extremely long: the Op. 1 includes a Suite in d minor, which takes here the complete first disc, lasting more than 64 minutes. Some individual pieces are quite long as well: La Parissienne from Op. 5 takes more than eight minutes, Le Pegase from Op. 4 almost nine. In the above-mentioned Suite in d minor we find some sort of operatic scenes, about the Cyclops and Apollo.

Stylistically Moyreau's music reminds me of that of his contemporary Claude-Bénigne Balbastre. The first of the two pieces about the Cyclops includes effects that show strong similarity to Balbastre's , Marche des Marseillois et l'air ça-ira. Those who have a more than average knowledge of French harpsichord music know what to expect. Moyreau's music may be considered a token of the decline often associated with Balbastre. Not every lover of French harpsichord music may appreciate it. I would not recommend listening to Moyreau's music at a stretch. It is better to take one disc at a time or even a part of it. I have nothing but praise for Fernando De Luca's performance. He rightly does play Moyreau with aplomb; too much subtlety would be out of place. This is mostly pretty extraverted stuff, and that is the way De Luca treats it.

The fact that all of Moyreau's books of harpsichord pieces were published in one year, suggests that they were written over a longer period of time. Therefore, it is anything but sure that the Premier Livre de Pièces de Clavecin by Charles-Alexandre Jollage [2], which was printed in 1738, is much older. However, stylistically the pieces included in this book are much more conservative.

It is not known exactly when Jollage was born; it is assumed it must have been around 1700. The place of his birth is not known either, but it seems likely that he was from the same region as Moyreau. Like he, Jollage was educated at harpsichord and organ, and worked as organist for most of his life. In 1755 he became one of the four organists of the Notre-Dame in Paris, alongside Daquin, Armand-Louis Couperin and René Drouard du Bousset. Apparently he had worked for quite some time in Paris as a harpsichord teacher.

The first book of pieces for the harpsichord is the only music of his pen ever printed. It consists of two suites in G major/minor and in A major/minor respectively. One of the features is that some pieces are divided into two sections, the first in major, the second in minor. In accordance with the conventions of the time, most movements are character pieces. The titles are mostly hard to interpret, but Le Postillon (Suite in A major/minor) cannot be misunderstood. Another notable piece is Les Caquets (the singular means 'chatter') (Suite in G major/minor). The same suite includes L'Obstinée, which is another nice musical painting.

In New Grove Jollage's music is called "bland and conventional". I politely disagree. I have enjoyed these two suites, and they are definitely more to my taste than the music by Moyreau. Fernando De Luca has caught their character very well, and plays with more restraint and more subtlety than Moyreau's oeuvre. This is the first recording of Jollage's harpsichord music, and that is well deserved.

If there is one French composer whose harpsichord music has strong operatic traits, it is Jean-Philippe Rameau [3]. Although it dates from the time before he turned to opera, it shows that he was an operatic genius from early on. Some of his harpsichord pieces were later orchestrated and included in his operas. This was the reverse of the common habit of transcribing operatic music for harpsichord. Rameau paid tribute to the latter practice in that he published Les Indes galantes 1735 in the form of Quatre grands concerts to be played on harpsichord(s) or by an instrumental ensemble. This was the inspiration to the recording by Loris Barrucand and Clément Geoffroy. Some of the pieces need a third hand or can only be played by two players, which explains that the music on their disc is played on two harpsichords. They have chosen pieces from four operas, which are connected by the fascination for the culture of the East, and especially that of Persia.

The operatic nature of the music comes perfectly off. The interpreters play with aplomb and imagination. That said, those who know and love Rameau's operas will miss something that it a hallmark of his operas: the colours of the orchestra. Rameau was a masterful orchestrator, which earned him the admiration of composers of later generations, such as Berlioz and Debussy. This aspect is lost in a transcrioption for harpsichord(s), and therefore a disc like this may appeal more to lovers of the harpsichord than admirers of Rameau's operas.

The fourth disc does not include opera transcriptions, but is theatrical in that Céline Frisch [4] ordered the pieces with the aim of illustrating a day at the court. The first chapter is called "the beginning of the day and the mass": each day started with a mass in the Chapelle Royale. It opens with Le réveil-matin (the alarm clock) from François Couperin's 4e Ordre and closes with Carillon ou cloches by Pierre Dandrieu. The second chapter is about hunting: "Les plaisirs de la chasse". That is also the title of a cycle of pieces by Louis-Claude Daquin, which takes this entire chapter. Then comes "Promenade amoureuse et bucolique". Among the pieces are Les tendres sentiments by Joseph-Nicolas-Pancrace Royer and Le Rossignol-en-amour from Couperin's 14e Ordre. "Les jeux et le divertissement de la cour", which is about the evening entertainment, is the title of the fourth chapter. It opens with Couperin's Les Amusemens (7e Ordre) and also includes some transcriptions of operatic pieces by Rameau, from the pen of Claude-Bénigne Balbastre. At the end of the programme, the king goes to bed, with Michel Corrette's Les Étoiles.

Céline Frisch's performances are profiled characterisations of the different pieces; one of the highlights is Daquin's cycle about the hunt. Apart from Frisch's playing, it is due to the harpsichord that the various pieces come off so well: it is a copy of an instrument by Jean-Claude Goujon (before 1749), ravalé by Joachim Swanen (1784). It has a strong sound, and also has a knee-lever mechanism, which allows for a change in registration. Frisch uses it in Balbastre. Rather than simply presenting a random selection of pieces, she tells a kind of story here, which makes it a very entertaining recital.

One of the composers included in her programme is the subject of the last disc to be reviewed here: François d'Agincour(t) [5], who was born and died in Rouen, where he was active as organist all his life. For some time he also acted as one of the organists of the Chapelle Royale. He was a strong admirer of François Couperin; in the fourth suite of his only book with harpsichord pieces, Premier livre de clavecin (1733), he devoted some pieces to him. He also called his suites ordres, and - like those by Couperin - they mostly consist of character or genre pieces. The book was dedicated to the Queen of France, Marie Leczinska. This explains the opening of the book with the Allemande La Couronne. The countryside makes its appearance with Les Danses Provençales. In the Second ordre we find a scene of a play, the rondeau Le Colin Maillard, which Céline Frisch also included in the chapter devoted to the entertainment at the court. The second suite ends with the beautiful Chaconne La Sonning.

D'Agincourt is one of the lesser-known composers of keyboard music from 18th-century France. That is regrettable, and it is nice that Stéphane Béchy has taken the initiative to record his harpsichord book complete; this is the first volume, which hopefully will be followed by another disc, which may also contain (at least a part of) d'Agincourt's organ works. I very much like Béchy's playing, which is stylish and subtle. This recording makes crystal clear that the negligence of d'Agincourt's oeuvre is undeserved. It's time for a revaluation. This disc helps.

[1] Charles Moyreau: "Complete Harpsichord Music"
Fernando De Luca, harpsichord
Brilliant Classics 96285 (© 2022) details

[2] Charles-Alexandre Jollage: "Premier livre de Pièces de Clavecin"
Fernando De Luca, harpsichord
Brilliant Classics 96773 (© 2023) details

[3] Jean-Philippe Rameau: "Fêtes Persanes"
Loris Barrucand, Clément Geoffroy, harpsichord
Château de Versailles Spectacles CVS079 (© 2022) details

[4] "L'aimable - Une journée avec Louis XV"
Céline Frisch, harpsichord
Alpha 837 (© 2022) details

[5] François d'Agincourt: "Pièces de Clavecin - Livre de 1733 Vol I"
Stéphane Béchy, harpsichord
BY Classique BY003 (© 2022) details

Saturday, September 16, 2023

Classical concertos & symphonies

There is not much chance that visitors of live concerts with music of the classical era have the chance to hear music by lesser-known contemporaries of the masters Mozart, Haydn and Beethoven. Even the best-known among them, such as Johann Nepomuk Hummel, take a minor role in modern concert life. It is thanks to some specialists, and in the latest decades in particular the representatives of historical performance practice, that now and then recordings of such repertoire are released. Today their composers are overshadowed by the 'masters'. That was very different in their own time. The two Kozeluchs, for instance, were highly respected in their time. They were just two of many composers and performers from Bohemia, who made a career in their own part of Europe or even far beyond. The first disc to be reviewed here includes three concertos for a wind instrument. During the baroque era the oboe was one of the most revered instruments. Two oboes, strings and basso continuo was the standard scoring of orchestral suites, and many composers wrote concertos and sonatas for it as well as obbligato parts in vocal works. The best-known oboe concerto from the classical era is the one by Mozart. According to Karl Böhmer, in his liner-notes to this recording, Jan Anton Kozeluch's Concerto in F is one of the best of its time, and written in the classical style. Many concertos of the classical era show the influence of opera, and that manifests itself here especially in the slow movement. The bassoon was also often part of the scoring of baroque orchestral suites, but in comparison to the oboe, only a few composers wrote solo concertos or sonatas for it. Antonio Vivaldi was the first prolific composer of bassoon concertos, and in Germany it was Christoph Graupner who composed some virtuosic bassoon concertos. In the classical era it is Mozart's concerto that is best-known, although by far not as famous as his clarinet concerto. Jan Anton Kozeluch wrote the Concerto in C that has become part of the standard repertoire. Many pieces by the Kozeluch's are hard to attribute to one of them, as they often mention only 'Kozeluch' as the name of the composer. That is also the case with the Concerto in B flat, whose solo part falls within the range of a baroque bassoon and therefore may be the earliest piece on this disc. It may be an early work of Leopold. The disc ends with the latter's Symphony in g minor, which is one of three dating from the 1780s. Böhmer mentions similarities with Mozart's last symphonies, and it is interesting to note that Kozeluch's symphonies precede them. This disc is a worthy tribute to two composers whose oeuvre is seriously underexposed, which is unjustified, as this recording proves. Both Giovanni de Angeli and Sergio Azzolini deliver excellent performances of the solo parts. Especially interesting is Azzolini's instrument, an original bassoon of around 1794. Camerata Rousseau is their outstanding partner, and closes this disc with an energetic performance of Leopold Kozeluch's symphony.

Like the Kozeluchs, Antonin Reicha was from Bohemia. He is better-known than they, but mainly because of his connection to Beethoven. As far as his oeuvre is concerned, the wind quintets are part of the standard repertoire of wind ensembles, but he has written much more, which is seldom performed. That makes the second disc reviewed here especially important. It includes two sinfonias concertante, specimens of a genre that was very popular in the classical era. The first such works were written and performed in Paris in the second half of the 18th century. Such pieces were something between a symphony and a solo concerto. They were always scored for an orchestra with solo parts for two or more instruments. The main aim of a sinfonia concertante was entertainment. The genre belongs among the 'lighter' genres of the time. However, the way composers treated it was different. One of the best-known pieces of this kind is Mozart's Sinfonia concertante for violin and viola, which is one of his most-beloved works for a reason. The two sinfonias concertante by Reicha which Stephan MacLeod recorded with his orchestra Gli Angeli Genève and four soloists, are far more than mere entertainment. The sheer size of these works - around 30 and 40 minutes respectively - indicates that these are substantial works. That goes in particular for the Sinfonia concertante in E, which has two cello parts that are technically challenging; in comparison the parts for transverse flute and violin in the Sinfonia concertante in G are easier to deal with. At the same time, as Alexis Kossenko states in the booklet, it is obvious that Reicha, having been educated at the flute, had an intimate knowledge of the instrument. This work is closer to the ideal of entertainment than the other piece. In the work for two cellos we find traces of opera, as in the concertos on the first disc. It is also uncommon in that it opens in C major rather than the main key of E major. This disc should contribute to giving Reicha its rightful place in the landscape of classical music. These two works deserve the best possible performances, and that is exactly what they get here. Chouchane Siranossian, Alexis Kossenko, Christophe Coin and Davit Malkonyan are top-class performers, who deliver outstanding performances of the solo parts and are also fully integrated in the orchestra. In particular the Sinfonia concertante in E was recorded in difficult circumstances, due to the restrictions because of COVID-19. It is a token of the quality of the soloists and the orchestra that the result is this good.

The third disc is devoted to Johann Wilhelm Wilms, a composer of German birth, who settled in Amsterdam in 1791 and played a major role in music life in the Netherlands in the early 19th century, as a composer, a conductor, a flautist and a pianist. In the last twenty years or so we witness a modest revival of his output. Some of his symphonies and solo concertos have been recorded, but the Accent disc seems to include only first recordings of his clarinet concerto and two sinfonias concertante, which he himself called just Concertante. The most remarkable piece may well be the Concerto in B flat for clarinet, which - according to the soloist, Ernst Schlader - is technically comparable with Mozart's concerto. He also notes some tricky passages that point in the direction of clarinet works by Weber. The two sinfonias concertante are not without technical challenges either. That goes, for instance, for the cello part in the Concertante in C. The other solo parts are for transverse flute, clarinet, bassoon and violin. The Concertante in F is scored for transverse flute, oboe or clarinet (here the oboe has been chosen), bassoon, horn and orchestra. The 'entertainment' in these works comes in the last movements: a polonaise closes the Concertante in C and the clarinet concerto. The Concertante in F comprises only two movements: the first is in three sections (allegro - andante - allegro), the second is a set of variations - a very popular form at the time. So far the ensemble Harmonie Universelle has almost entirely confined itself to music from the baroque era; this is probably the latest music it has ever played. It does so very well, and it is nice that they have focused on Wilms, who deserves more interest than he has been given so far. With Andreas Spering they have invited a conductor with vast experience in the classical repertoire. The soloists do an excellent job here as well; they are all specialists on their respective (historical) instruments. This disc is a most convincing case for Johann Wilhelm Wilms.

[1] Johann Antonin & Leopold Kozeluch: "Concertos and Symphony"
Giovanni de Angeli, oboe; Sergio Azzolini, bassoon; Camerata Rousseau/Leonardo Muzii
Sony 19439788202 (© 2021) details

[2] Antonin Reicha: "Symphonies concertantes"
Alexis Kossenko, transverse flute; Chouchane Siranossian, violin; Christophe Coin, Davit Melkonyan, cello; Gli Angeli Genève/Stephan MacLeod
Claves CD 50-3011 (© 2020) details

[3] Johann Wilhelm Wilms: "Clarinet Concerto, Sinfonie Concertante"
Ernst Schlader, clarinet; Harmonie Universelle/Andreas Spering
Accent ACC 24391 (© 2023) details

Saturday, September 2, 2023

Tunes from the British Isles

Most 'classical' music performed today in churches and concert halls all over the world, and recorded on disc, belongs among the category of what is called 'art music'. It was written by composers and has come down to us in fixed form, either in manuscript or in printed editions. However, in the course of history, much music - and probably even most - was sung and played by people who did not use any written notes; many of them were probably not even able to read music. Improvisation was the name of the game, and music was handed over from one generation to another orally. It had no fixed form, and in the course of time, both texts and music often changed considerably. In most cases their original forms are not known, unless at some time such music was written down. That is the case with the music which is the subject of a recording by an the Makaris [1], whose name is derived from makar (pl. makaris), a royal court troubadour of medieval Scotland; the term was resurrected centuries later and is used now to describe a Scottish bard or poet (booklet).

The title of this disc also needs some explanation. David Rizzio, of Italian origin, was secretary to Mary, Queen of Scots. In 1566 he was murdered by Mary's Protestant opponents. He was also a bass singer, but there is no reason to think that he has ever written any note of music. However, a number of songs are attributed to him, and that was the work of William Thomson (c1684-c1762), who in 1726 published a collection of songs under the title of Orpheus Caledonius. It was the first printed edition of arrangements of traditional Scottish songs, consisting fifty settings by Thomson over a figured bass. For 43 melodies no composer was mentioned, and it is likely that Thomson plagiarized their texts from a book of Scottish poetry published two years before. Thomson attributed the seven remaining melodies to David Rizzio. The reason for that may well have been that the Italian style was fashionable and that attributing melodies to an Italian Thomson hoped to sell more copies. Several respected composers fell for this myth, including James Oswald and Francesco Geminiani.

Makaris's disc presents all 22 songs falsely attributed to Rizzio, in various arrangements, mostly by composers from the 18th century (Geminiani, Veracini, JC Bach), but also by members of the ensemble. Most of them are performed in a combination of voice and instruments, and some are performed in instrumental versions. In some cases, arrangements by different composers have been mixed. The only composer who is represented with original music, is James Oswald. This disc seems to me of great interest to any lover of traditional music. What we have here is the performance in historical fashion - with instruments of the 18th century - of music from a stage in its development in which it was fixed. It is not only an interesting contribution to our knowledge of the music scene in 18th-century England, but also the history of traditional music and the way it developed in the course of time. Even if you don't understand all the texts, this is an enjoyable disc, as the members of the ensemble perform these pieces with audible enthusiasm and technical skills on their respective instruments.

The second disc is more modest with regard to the participation of instruments. Most pieces are played on the harp, either solo or with violin; the latter was the instrument of the Irish Turlough O'Carolan, and he is one of the best-represented composers on the programme recorded by the ensemble Spirit & Pleasure [2]. This ensemble consists of Christoph Mayer (violin) and Johanna Seitz (harp), in a few pieces joined by Monika Nielen on the oboe. Whereas Makaris entirely focused on tunes from Scotland, here we also get some from Ireland and England. The above-mentioned Geminiani is also represented, and so is James Oswald, who was from Scotland and was educated on the cello. He settled in London and became acquainted with the English, Italian and French styles. He a had a strong influence on later generations of composers.

The pieces in the programme belong among two categories. On the one hand we have 'authentic' arrangements of traditional tunes in baroque style by the likes of Geminiani, O'Carolan and Oswald. On the other hand we have traditional tunes arranged in a comparable way by the performers themselves. The fact that composers of the 18th century arranged these tunes - and they were followed by classical masters such as Haydn and Beethoven - justifies this procedure, and it seems to me that they have done a fine job. The traditional tunes have their own charm, and even those who have no great interest in traditional music as such may well enjoy these tunes in a baroque shape. In this case there are no texts which are hard to understand, as the songs are performed instrumentally, which again is an entirely legitimate procedure.

[1] "The Galant David Rizzio - Eighteenth-century arrangements of traditional Scottish songs"
Makaris
Olde Focus Recordings FCR921 (© 2022) details

[2] "Good taste - Baroque folk from Ireland, Scotland and England"
Spirit & Pleasure
Aeolus AE-10346 (© 2021) details

Friday, August 4, 2023

Viola da gamba solo

In the 16th and 17th centuries, the viola da gamba was one of the most revered instruments. It was played in consort, but music for viola da gamba solo was also written, and especially music to be played the lyra way, as it was called, was very popular. Although the term lyra viol referred to the way of playing in the first place, the lyra viol was different from other viols in that it had six gut strings. Music for lyra viol always indicates the tuning in which it has to be played. More than fifty tunings are documented; Alfonso Ferrabosco [1], one of the main composers for the lyra viol, confines himself to three. The pieces in his collection Lessons for 1. 2. and 3 viols of 1609 are ordered according to tuning. Most are printed in pairs on the same page, and Richard Boothby, in his selection from the collection, performs them as such. Most pairs consist of alman and coranto, but there are also pairs of galliard and coranto and pavan (pavin) and coranto. In addition, the collection includes three preludes and a single pavan. Boothby also selected two pairs for two viols, in which he is seconded by Asako Morikawa. Recently Ferrabosco's oeuvre has received quite some interest; I reviewed two recordings of consort music and music for lyra viol. Boothby's recording is a most welcome addition to the discography, also because of his engaging and dynamic playing. This disc is pretty much an ideal way to get to know the lyra viol and its music as well as the oeuvre of Ferrabosco.

Matteo Cicchitti [2] recorded a programme of music by four composers, two of which are very well-known (Diego Ortiz, Tobias Hume), whereas the two others are largely unknown quantities. The programme starts with four recercadas from the Tratado de glosas by Ortiz. Cicchitti then goes on with six pieces by Hume, taken from the first book which was printed in 1605. These are pieces that undoubtedly find their origin in improvisations by the composer. Then we get some pieces by Benjamin Hely (fl 1680-1690), who in 1699 published The Compleat Violist, which was intended as instruction material for 'young practitioners'. These pieces are recorded here for the first time. The same goes for the largest part of this disc: 21 ricercares by the Italian composer Angelo Michele Bertalotti (c1665-1747). Given that the viola da gamba was hardly played in Italy after the mid-17th century, one may wonder about the reasons these pieces were written. It needs to be said that they are not intended for the viola da gamba. They are taken from Bertalotti's Regole facilissime per apprendere con facilità, e prestezza li canti fermo e figurato dati alle stampe per comodo delli putti delle Scuole Pie di Bologna of 1698. This collection consists of pieces for one and for two voices, intended for vocal training. One could compare them with solfeggi. They have been transposed down to fit the viola da gamba. As there is little chance that such pieces will ever be recorded in vocal performances (for which they are not intended anyway), this disc offers an opportunity to get to know them. Fortunately, they can stand on their own feet this way, especially if they are played as well as by Matteo Cicchitti, who has presented here an interesting survey of what was written for the viol or can be played on it. I was especially struck by Hely's music, and I hope that more of his (small) oeuvre is going to be recorded. It seems well worth it.

Roberto Gini [3], in the liner-notes to his recording, sheds light on the conflict between two ways of playing the viola da gamba and composing of music for it which took place in France in the second half of the 17th century. On the one hand there was the jeu d'harmonie, which was connected to the old way of playing, the ancient port de main, and which combined melody and accompaniment, which suggests polyphony. The nouveau port de main represented the domination of melody, the jeu de mélodie, in which the viol played mostly just one melodic line (without avoiding harmonies altogether). This style was promoted by Sieur de Sainte-Colombe and his followers, among whom Marin Marais was the most prominent. It does not surprise that the latter started to write music for the viol with basso continuo, which provided the counterpoint that earlier was taken care of by the viol itself. Gini has recorded a programme of pieces in the 'old manner', by composers from France, England and Germany. The origin of chordal playing was England, and it is represented here by William Young, who emigrated to the continent and worked for a number of years in Austria. Nicolas Hotman and Monsieur Du Buisson are the earliest representatives of the French viol school. Theodore Steffkin(s) was of German birth, worked for some time in England and also in Italy, which makes him an interesting link between the English viol school and viol playing at the continent. Gini has produced a historically interesting and musically compelling recording of music that is seldom performed and recorded. He plays the selected pieces brilliantly, and his liner-notes are of great informative value. This is a disc no lover of the viola da gamba should miss.

Sieur de Machy (fl 2nd half of the 17th C) [4] was a composer who got directly involved in the debate between the 'harmonic' and 'melodic' schools. We know about this from the treatise Traité de la Viole by Jean Rousseau (1687), who was a representative of the 'melodic' school. Unfortunately Machy's contribution to the debate has been lost. We only know his views through liberal quotations in Rousseau's book - of which we can't be sure that they are correct - and the composer's preface to his book of suites. In his music melodic and harmonic episodes alternate. Machy wanted to underline the autonomy of the viol. He specifically composed suites which could be played by the viol without any accompaniment as was becoming increasingly the standard in the last decades of the 17th century. It is exactly for that reason that he emphasized the 'harmonic' nature of the viol, and stressed the importance of tenües (held notes) - notes that must be held even when they are no longer physically played by the bow. These are sounds whose resonance must be cultivated and prolonged so as to create harmony with the sounds successively produced by the bow. This reflects the ideal of a 'self-sufficient' instrument. Another feature of Machy's suites is that he explores the entire range of the viola da gamba. The Australian gambist Shaun Ng presents four suites in D minor and major and in G minor and major respectively. They open with a prélude, which has a marked improvisatory character, and continue with a sequence of dances, some of which are followed by a double. The disc ends appropriately with a chaconne. Ng is an outstanding player and performs these suites brilliantly. I noted pretty strong dynamic differences, about which I am a little in two minds, as I wonder whether this was part of the French style of playing. I don't know the answer. Anyway, given that Machy's music is not that well-known and its quality is without any doubt, this engaging interpretation of these four suites is most welcome.

Johanna Rose [5] makes an interesting connection between French music for the viola da gamba and what was written in Germany. However, as she focuses on music for the viola da gamba without basso continuo, and plays music by Monsieur de Sainte-Colombe (c1640-c1700), one might expect her to turn to contemporaries of his in Germany, or to Georg Philipp Telemann, who also composed music for viola da gamba solo, which was clearly inspired by the French style he so admired. In fact, Ms Rose turns to Bach: he wrote three sonatas for viola da gamba and obbligato harpsichord, but no music for the viola da gamba alone. She plays two of Bach's cello suites on a viola da gamba with seven strings, an instrument she herself designed. Interestingly, it is Sainte-Colombe who is credited with having added a seventh string to the viola da gamba. In the liner-notes, it is argued that Bach's cello suites are rooted in the past, and that they are a blending of old and new. Sainte-Colombe was a representative of the 'melodic' school, although in fact he mixes melodic and harmonic elements. That is also the case with Bach's cello suites. From that perspective the connection makes sense. Johanna Rose plays the last two of Bach's cello suites and excerpts from a suite by Sainte-Colombe, embraced by pieces from the pen of his son, who lived and worked in England. Interestingly, the latter's prélude with which this part of the disc opens, is largely written in the 'harmonic' style. Sainte-Colombe is better-known for his Concerts à deux violes esgales than for his solo suites. That makes this disc a valuable addition to the discography anyway, and that also concerns the pieces by his son. Ms Rose is a fine player who does deliver excellent performances of Sainte-Colombe. Her Bach is also nice to hear; here there is more competition, and it is certainly interesting to hear the cello suites on the viola da gamba. They fare pretty well, although I prefer to hear them on a cello.

The Fantasias by Georg Philipp Telemann [6], which one may have expected from Johanna Rose, come from Israel Castillo Hernández. Since they were rediscovered about ten years ago, quite a number of recordings have been released. It is easy to understand why they have become so popular among performers. Today Telemann is generally ackowledged as one of the great composers of his time. The qualities of his fantasias for the transverse flute are well-known, and obviously that made gambists curious about the fantasias for their instrument. For a long time they were assumed to be lost, and when they were rediscovered, they turned out to be of the same high quality as the flute fantasias. Telemann himself was certainly not a viol virtuoso, but he was able to play almost any instrument in vogue in his time. He knew enough about the technicalities of each instrument to write idiomatic music for it. The viola da gamba plays a substantial role in his oeuvre, which does not surprise, considering his liking of the French style. The fantasias were written in the time that the galant idiom had become fashionable, but they include quite some counterpoint, for instance in a number of fugues. Like Bach and Sainte-Colombe, they are a mixture of melodic and harmonic passages. One can leave it to Telemann to create quite some variety within this set of twelve fantasias. These come off very well in this fine recording by Castillo Hernández, who is not afraid to emphasize the dramatic features of some pieces, such as the opening movement of the Fantasia No. 11. This is a compelling recording, which can compete with any recording that has been released previously.

[1] Alfonso Ferrabosco II: "Music to hear - Music for lyra viol from 1609"
Richard Boothby, Asaka Morikawa, viola da gamba
Signum Classics SIGCD757 (© 2023) details

[2] "Ricercare e Canzoni" (Ortiz, Hume, Hely, Bertalotti)
Matteo Cicchitti, viola da gamba
Challenge Classics CC72918 (© 2022) details

[3] "Viola da gamba - Le Jeu d'Harmonie"
Roberto Gini, viola da gamba
Aulicus Classics ALC 0047 (© 2021) details

[4] Mr. De Machy: "Pieces de Violle"
Shaun Ng, viola da gamba
A415 Music CD006 (© 2022) details

[5] "7 Movements - J.S. Bach, Sainte-Colombe father & son"
Johanna Rose, viola da gamba
Rubicon RCD1101 (© 2022) details

[6] Georg Philipp Telemann: 12 Fantaisies pour la basse de violle
Israel Castillo Hernández, viola da gamba
Urtext JBCC334 (© 2022) details

Friday, July 7, 2023

In praise of the Viennese double bass

The double bass is mainly known as the grumbler in the low department of the orchestra. Very seldom it shines in a solo role. Recently three discs have been released which attest to its qualities as a solo instrument. That is to say, we have to do here with a special kind of double bass (in the liner-notes of one of the discs also called violone), known as 'Viennese double bass'. The booklet to the Glossa disc [1] explains its character: "A special characteristic is its five-string configuration with third-fourth tuning (F-A-D-F#-A), which is documented already in the late seventeenth century. In addition, the instrument was always played with frets, in contrast with the four-string models in the Italian tradition". Chiara Bertoglio [3] explains in what way this allowed this instrument to act in a solo role: "A higher number of strings, in fact, fostered the possibility of quickly spanning large intervals, and consequently of mastering virtuoso passages more easily. Agility was also fostered by the presence of frets and by the shape of the instrument. Frets allowed for a more precise intonation, but also for a technique similar to the guitar’s barré, i.e. the possibility of creating chords by positioning the finger transversely in correspondence of the fret. Moreover, the Viennese violone's silhouette, characterized by a very sloping upper part, permitted to the player to easily reach the high-pitched notes (obtained by pressing the strings in the instrument's lower part)."

Most music for the Viennese double bass was written roughly between 1760 and 1800. That is the time the music on these three discs was written. One of the main protagonists of the Viennese double bass was Johannes Sperger (1750-1812), who was educated at the double bass and was generally considered the greatest player of this instrument of his time. He left a substantial oeuvre, in which 18 concertos for double bass take a special place. The solo parts are demanding and undoubtedly reflect his own skills. Ján Krigovský [2] plays three concertos from his early period (1778/79): the concertos Nos. 3 and 4 appear on disc for the first time, whereas the Concerto No. 2 has been recorded for the first time on period instruments. Sperger's last concerto, which was written in 1807, has been recorded by Isaline Leloup [3], but then in a 'pocket-size' arrangement: the orchestral parts are adapted for string quartet. This was a common practice at the time, and this version is entirely convincing and does not fail to demonstrate the concerto's qualities. Sperger is also included in David Sinclair's recording [1], but then with a piece of chamber music: the Sonata in b minor from 1790 is scored for double bass and cello.

Isaline Leloup included a comparable piece, the Duetto in E flat for viola and double bass by Carl Ditters von Dittersdorf. It closes with a theme with variations, in which the two instruments alternatively play the theme and a variation. The third work on her disc is the Quartet No. 2 in D by Franz Anton Hoffmeister. Quartets for a solo instrument and string trio were very popular during the Classical period. The 'solo instrument' was mostly a flute or an oboe; here it is the double bass.

Sinclair offers two further solo concertos. The Concerto in D by Karl Kohaut, a lutenist by profession, but also a player of the double bass, is one of the earliest concertos for the Viennese double bass, and still has the traces of a baroque concerto. The Concerto in D by Anton Zimmermann was discovered recently and has been recorded by Sinclair for the first time. Zimmermann was a key figure in the orchestra of Pressburg (now Bratislava), where Sperger also spent six years of his life. Sinclair rounds off his programme with two further pieces of chamber music in which the double bass plays the part of another instrument. The Sonata in F was probably written by Andreas Lidl, but is performed here in an adapted version by Franz Xaver Hammer. The solo part was conceived for a viola da gamba. The disc closes with one of Haydn's baryton trios; the double bass takes care of the baryton part.

These three discs are of great importance and offer a fascinating insight into a little-known aspect of the music scene in the Classical period. Each of the pieces performed on these discs is of fine quality, and the solo concertos by Sperger are really exciting stuff. It is probably due to the fact that they require a special kind of double bass that they are not more often performed and recorded. We have here another example of music that only can be performed convincingly with the use of the instruments of the period. All three soloists are excellent in their own right. It is nice that their respective programmes are different, which means that the repertoire available on disc has been substantially increased. Sinclair is accompanied by teachers and former students of the Schola Cantorum Basiliensis, which guarantees high quality and consistency in the interpretation. Ján Krigovský, who is a member of Gunar Letzbor's ensemble Ars Antiqua Austria, and as such mostly plays baroque repertoire, is shining here in later music, with the assistence of Collegium Wartberg 430, an ensemble which plays a wide variety of music on the appropriate instruments. It does an excellent job here. Isaline Leloup has the support of four fine players on violins, viola and cello, and the result is a top-class recording of classical chamber music.

[1] "Wiener Stimmung - Works for the Viennese bass from the late 18th century"
David Sinclair, double bass; Teachers and former students of the Schola Cantorum Basiliensis
Glossa GCD 922524 (© 2022) details

[2] Sperger: "Double bass Concertos"
Ján Krigovský, double bass; Collegium Wartberg 430
Challenge Classics CC72915 (© 2022) details

[3] "A Viennese afternoon - 18th century Viennese bass music"
Isaline Leloup, double bass; Patrick Oliva, Martha Moore, violin; Jean-Philippe Gandit, viola; Ronan Kernoa, cello
Da Vinci Classics C00410 (© 2021) details